Recent scientific publications

The following scientific publications have been presented or co-authored by Smart Innovation Norway in different academic fora. If you are interested in learning more about our publications, please contact:

Scientific Coordinator, Dr. Iliana Ilieva, at or

Head of Research & Innovation, Dieter Hirdes, at

37. Utilizing Local Flexibility Resources to Mitigate Grid Challenges at Electric Vehicle Charging Stations
  • Written by: Iliana Ilieva and Bernt A. Bremdal (Smart Innovation Norway and University of Tromsø)
  • Published at: Energies


Charging of electric vehicles (EVs) on a large scale can cause problems for the grid. Utilizing local flexibility resources, such as smart charging, stationary battery, vehicle-to-grid applications, and local generation can be an efficient way to contain the grid challenges and mitigate the need for grid reinforcement.

Focusing on the INSPIRIA charging station located in Norway, this paper investigates the possibility of coping with imminent grid challenges by means of local flexibility. First, the potential grid challenges are estimated with the help of Monte Carlo simulations. Second, cost and performance for the various local flexibility sources are presented. Third, an analysis of the choice of battery, charging process, and battery economy are provided.

Finally, the paper discusses the optimal mix of flexibility resources to efficiently mitigate grid challenges at the INSPIRIA charging station.

36. Flexibility-Enhancing Charging Station to Support the Integration of Electric Vehicles


This paper discusses the Inspiria charging station facility in Norway, which enables various charging point operators to offer different charging systems for different purposes and needs.

The charging station can be considered a specific case of a shared economy, as users share the same infrastructure and much of the same space. By utilizing new technology and the differences in charging needs in an innovative way, the power requirements for charging can be controlled and the severity of high-load periods can be reduced – both within the charging station’s system and outside it.

Using historical traffic data from the Inspiria charging station’s area and Monte Carlo simulations, this study investigated the impact of charging on the grid – both in the current period and in the future. Attention was paid to the impact associated with the usage of superfast chargers. The possibility of containing grid disturbances through utilization of local flexibility was investigated.

Finally, we investigated the benefits that the charging station model brings to charging point operators and car owners. The research reported provides support for ambitions for accelerated roll-out and increased density of cost-effective charging points, the wider implication of which concerns the transition to fossil-free transport and the utilization of locally generated, renewable energy.

35. Optimal midterm peak shaving cost in an electricity management system using behind customers’ smart meter configuration
  • Written by: Agustin A.Sánchez de la Nieta (Energy & Resources group, Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Utrecht University), Iliana Ilieva (Smart Innovation Norway), Madeleine Gibescu (Energy & Resources group, Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Utrecht University), Bernt A. Bremdal (Smart Innovation Norway and The University of Tromsø), Stig Simonsen (Skagerak Energi AS), Eivind Gramme (Skagerak Energi AS)
  • Published at: Applied Energy
  • Project of relevance: E-REGIO


This paper analyses a local electricity system (LES) comprising photovoltaic production (PV), a connection to the distribution network, local loads and an energy storage system (ESS). Given the flexibility of the ESS, the LES can provide a peak shaving service (PSS) to the grid operator based on the actual monthly power tariff.

The paper proposes a stochastic mixed-integer linear programming problem that maximises the expected operatingprofit of the LES midterm. Assuming a behind customers’ smart meter configuration, income is derived from selling the energy of prosumers to other external electrical areas. If the costs are higher than the income, the net profit will be negative, i.e. a net loss. The cost component of the objective function can be reduced through the management of local resources and by providing PSS to the distribution network operator to minimise the power cost of the monthly power tariff.

The model is tested for 720 h (considering a month of 30 days) in three cases: (i) without PV and ESS; (ii) with PV and ESS, where losses are 0%; (iii) with PV and ESS, where losses are 18%. Due to the monthly power tariff, the net loss of the LES is reduced through the optimal management of local resources when the ESS losses are lower than 18%. To assess seasonal implications about the LES, the 12 months of the year are also tested. The month of October indicated the highest peak shaving, while the lowest peak shaving depended on the ESS losses.

34. Implementing local flexibility markets and the uptake of electric vehicles – the case for Norway
  • Written by: Iliana Ilieva (Smart Innovation Norway), Bernt A. Bremdal (Smart Innovation Norway and The University of Tromsø)
  • Published at: ENERGYCON 2020
  • Project of relevance: CINELDI


Pursuing a common goal to mitigate climate change and contribute to a cleaner environment, end-users are taking over a more locally focused and sustainable lifestyle.

In compliance to this social trend, recent years have brought a strong push towards electrification of transport and in Norway the interest in electricity driven personal cars has become particularly high. To realize the environmental benefit associated with electric vehicles, however, it is necessary to have enough power generation from renewable energy sources and sufficient capacity in the grid. Yet, renewable energy sources are typically intermittent in nature and pose challenges to the power system, while investments in increased grid capacity can be very costly. In this respect, the usage of energy flexibility to alleviate such challenges can be an efficient solution.

This paper contributes to the research field by referring to eminent experiences from local market implementation trials in Norway – a country with a particularly high electric vehicle uptake rate. The paper pays focus to the flexibility opportunities stemming from charging of electric vehicles and to the “locality” as an important aspect of the market solution. Discussing key issues related to flexibility potential, local market design and implementation, the paper serves as a good reference point to support further steps towards local flexibility markets establishments.

33. Towards a Reference Architecture for Cloud Based Flexibility Services in the Electricity Domain
  • Written by: Bernt A Bremdal (Smart Innovation Norway, UiT – The Arctic University of Tromsø), Hossein Fahramand (Norwegian University of Science and Technology), Pau Lloret-Gallego (Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya), Stig Ødegaard Ottesen (eSmart Systems), Sanket Puranik (Smart Innovation Norway), Bryan Pellerin (Smart Innovation Norway), Dagfinn Waage (Lyse Group)
  • Published at: CIRED 2020, 22-23 September
  • Project of relevance: INVADE


The H2020 project INVADE has addressed optimal activation of the different flexibility services using the cloud-based solution in the electricity domain. The results have been tested full-scale at different sites around Europe. Both business aspects and technical issues have been addressed.

To provide effective instruments for practice sharing, collaborating and communicating, sound reference architectures should be established. The paper deliberates on the findings from H2020 INVADE and proposes a way to expand existing frameworks for Smart Grids.

32. Investment planning in multi-vector energy systems: Definition of key performance indicators
  • Written by: Martha Hoffmann (Reiner Lemoine Institut), Sanket Puranik (Smart Innovation Norway), Marc Juanpera (Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya Barcelona Tech), José M Martín-Rapún (Inycom), Heidi Tuiskula (Smart Innovation Norway), Philipp Blechinger (Reiner Lemoine Institut)
  • Published at: CIRED 2020, 22-23 September
  • Project of relevance: E-LAND


With rising focus on integrating high shares of renewable energy into energy supply systems, the need to meet the viability of theses renewable sources becomes pressing. Apart from storing electricity in electro-chemical storage units, the concept of sector coupling could promise to provide the needed flexibility and storage capacities. A strong metric is needed to determine the viability and economic feasibility of different sector-coupled energy systems.

This conference paper presents an empirical method to develop a list of key performance indicators (KPI), as a direct adaption of the KPI of energy system with a single energy vector is not always possible. The list was developed based on a stakeholder workshop within the H2020 research project E-Land.

We propose the introduction of three new indicators for the evaluation of sector-coupled energy systems, namely degree of autonomy, levelized cost of energy and degree of sector coupling. A sector-coupled case study is evaluated to validate the performance of such new indicators while proving their utility to better assist decision-making.

31. A Framework for Offering Short-term Demand-Side Flexibility to a Flexibility Marketplace
  • Written by: Stig Ø. Ottesen (eSmart Systems and Smart Innovation Norway), Martin Haug and Heidi S. Nygård (Norwegian University of Life Sciences)
  • Published at: Energies
  • Project of relevance: Independent research


The decarbonization of the power sector involves electrification and a massive deployment of variable renewable energy sources, leading to an increase of local transmission congestion and ramping challenges. A possible solution to secure grid stability is local flexibility markets, in which prosumers can offer demand-side flexibility to the distribution system operator or other flexibility buyers through an aggregator.

The purpose of this study was to develop a framework for estimating and offering short-term demand-side flexibility to a flexibility marketplace, with the main focus being baseline estimation and bid generation. The baseline is estimated based on forecasts that have been corrected for effects from earlier flexibility activations and potential planned use of internal flexibility. Available flexibility volumes are then estimated based on the baseline, physical properties of the flexibility asset and agreed constraints for baseline deviation.

The estimated available flexibility is further formatted into a bid that may be offered to a flexibility marketplace, where buyers can buy and activate the offered flexibility, in whole or by parts. To illustrate and verify the proposed methodology, it was applied to a grocery warehouse. Based on real flexibility constraints, historic meter values, and forecasts for this use-case, we simulated a process where the flexibility is offered to a hypothetic flexibility marketplace through an aggregator.

30. The impact of end-user market integration and the smart grid on electricity retailers in the Nordic region
  • Written by: Iliana Ilieva (Smart Innovation Norway) and Steven A. Gabriel (University of Maryland)
  • Published at: Journal of energy markets
  • Project of relevance: Independent research


The Nordic end-user market for electricity has been subject to significant changes. The energy authorities within the Nordic countries have been intensively working to create a common electricity retail market that is fully operational, and all customers have had smart meters installed in 2019.

These changes are of particular concern for the suppliers of retail electric power as competition will increase and the retail products and offers related to the smart grid and the specific customers’ needs will gain importance. With the help of a mixed complementarity problem formulation that describes a simplified market setting with two competing retailers, we analyze the impact of the pending market changes on electricity retailers’ price markup and profit.

29. Steering by the Southern Sun: Australians Are Missing a Trick on Solar-Powered Electric Vehicles
  • Written by: Arjun Flora, Gerard Wynn (IEEFA), Simon Nicholas (IEEFA), Christian Kunze (Smart Innovation Norway)
  • Publisehd at: IEEFA – Institute for Energy Economics and Financial Analysis, December 2019
  • Project of relevance:


With reference to the E-REGIO project, an important point to make is that digitalisation and digital trends are capable of increasing the integration of renewable energies in the grid, while maintaining stability and dependability. New ICT tools and big data analytics, as exploited by the E-REGIO platform for local trade, will further assist this development, improving reliability, and optimising electricity production, consumption and grid operation.

28. Electric Vehicles and Batteries Can Drive Growth of Residential Solar
  • Written by: Gerard Wynn (IEEFA), Christian Kunze (Smart Innovation Norway), and Arjun Flora (Analyst)
  • Published at: IEEFA – Institute for Energy Economics and Financial Analysis, May 2019
  • Project of relevance:


This report assesses the prospects for residential solar, batteries and electric vehicles (EVs) in Britain and Germany. These technologies are expected to be at the centre of global energy system disruption in the future, because of declining costs and their close fit with a global energy system increasingly transitioning towards decarbonisation, decentralisation, digitalisation and democratisation.Strong mutual benefits make these technologies even more disruptive together than in isolation. The potential contribution of battery storage towards the electrification of mobility and heating further increases its relevance and impact.

27. Micromarkets in Microgrids – Chapter 3 
  • Written by: Bernt Bremdal and Iliana Ilieva (Smart Innovation Norway)
  • Published at: The book Micro and Local Power Markets, 24 May 2019
  • Project of relevance:

About the book

Introduces readers to micro and local power markets and their use for local initiatives, grid integration, and future applications.

This book provides the basis for understanding micro power markets, emphasizing its application for local initiatives, the grid integration of renewable-based generation, and facilitating the decarbonization of the future electrical networks. It gives readers a comprehensive overview of the market operation, and highlights the basis of the design of local and micro markets.

Micro and Local Power Markets starts by covering the economics and basic principle of power markets, including the fundamentals of the power trading (for both wholesale and local markets). Following a definition of both micro and local (technical and economic aspects) power markets, the book then looks at the organization of such markets. It describes the design of those power markets, isolated from the wholesale markets, and examines the methodologies of the interaction between these power markets and wholesale markets. The book also presents cognitive business models for micro and local power markets, as well as the regulatory issues concerning them.

26. E-REGIO – Digital advances in local energy trading
  • Written by: Iliana Ilieva (Smart Innovation Norway)
  • Published at: SciTech Europa 31
  • Project of relevance: E-REGIO


With reference to the E-REGIO project, an important point to make is that digitalisation and digital trends are capable of increasing the integration of renewable energies in the grid, while maintaining stability and dependability. New ICT tools and big data analytics, as exploited by the E-REGIO platform for local trade, will further assist this development, improving reliability, and optimising electricity production, consumption and grid operation.

25. Local energy markets as a solution for increased energy efficiency and flexibility
  • Written by: Iliana Ilieva (Smart Innovation Norway), Bernt Bremdal (Smart Innovation Norway and UiT – The Arctic University of Norway), Agustin A. S. de la Nieta Lopez (Utrecht University) and Stig H. Simonsen (Skagerak Energi)
  • Published at: 1st Nordic Conference on Zero Emission and Plus Energy Buildings, 6-7 November 2019
  • Project of relevance: E-REGIO


With increasing share of distributed renewable energy resources in the grid and arising energy consumer awareness on environmental challenges, new market models are sought where energy can be traded in an efficient and end-user centric way. This trend, together with the increasing consciousness on the benefits of local consumption and production has given rise to an increased focus on local energy market structures.

Within the E-REGIO project, funded through the ERA-Net Smart Grid Plus initiative, local energy markets have been paid particular attention. This paper discusses opportunities associated with local energy trading, as verified through the E-REGIO local energy system pilot – Skagerak EnergiLab in Norway.

Embracing, among others, local loads, energy storage system, PV generation and a large consumer (stadium facility), the pilot-based simulations have produced some useful insides on the implementation of local energy markets and have helped collect learnings that can be of benefit for future local energy market establishments.

24. Multi-vector energy optimization tools for energy islands
  • Written by: Sanket Puranik, Heidi Tuiskula and Iliana Ilieva (Smart Innovation Norway), Ferran Torrent, Joan Colomer and Joaquim Meléndez (University of Girona)
  • Project of relevance: E-LAND


Synergies between multiple energy vectors can support decarbonization of local energy islands and, at the same time, relieve stress from the electricity grid. Multi-vector energy systems offer flexibility to integrate variable and economic local energy generation. However, the implementation and operation of multi-vector energy systems face technical, societal and business-related challenges. This paper identifies these challenges and proposes different tools to tackle them.

These tools are to be developed in the E-LAND project funded by European Union under the H2020 scheme. Special focus of the paper is on developing a method for optimal planning and operation of multi-vector grid considering robustness. Another novelty of technical tool lies in making scheduling decisions on long-term and short-term storage considering demand response as flexibility resource.

By combining technological, societal and business tools, the project expects to create multi-vector energy systems accepted by citizens and with viable business model.

© 2019 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works.

23. RESOLVD – Renewable Penetration Levered by Efficient Low Voltage Distribution Grids. Specification and Use Case Analysis
  • Written by: Joaquim Meléndez Frigola (Universitat de Girona – Spain), Isidoros Kokos (Intracom Telecom – Greece), Heidi Tuiskula (Smart Innovation Norway), Andreas Sumper (Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya – Spain), Stefan Marksteiner (Joanneum Research – Austria), Ramon Gallart (Estabanell Distribució – Spain), Miha Smolnikar (Comsensus – Slovenia), and Ferran Torrent Fontbona (Universitat de Girona – Spain)
  • Published at: CIRED 2019, 25th International Conference on Electricity Distribution
  • Project of relevance: RESOLVD


The paper presents the RESOLVD (Renewable penetration levered by efficient low voltage distribution grids) project, that aims to improve the efficiency and the hosting capacity of distribution networks, in a context of highly distributed renewable generation by introducing flexibility (storage management) and control in the low voltage (LV) grid.

The analysis methodology – which follows the Smart Grid Architecture Model (SGAM) framework paradigm – is presented, along with the identified use cases and actors.

The proposed initial architecture is also presented, as derived from the use case analysis process together with a cybersecurity analysis of integration and interoperability issues. The research is being motivated by business models and the expected impacts are summarized in the paper.

22. Identification and validation of new business models for DSO business environment using business model canvas and stakeholder groups
  • Written by: Heidi Tuiskula, Sanket Puranik, Iliana Ilieva and Christian Kunze (Smart Innovation Norway)
  • Published at: CIRED 2019, 25th International Conference on Electricity Distribution
  • Project of relevance: RESOLVD


Different technologies aiming to digitize the distribution grid are being developed within research and innovation (R&I) projects. To unlock the true potential of the digital technologies in the distribution grid, novel solutions must be coupled with new business models. However, creating and validating new business models in the early phase of the innovation process and during the relatively short period of R&I projects is a challenge.

This paper presents a methodology to create and validate new business models using business model canvas (BMC) and a stakeholder innovation group (SIG). The methodology is currently being tested in the RESOLVD project funded by European Union under the H2020 scheme.

21. DSOs as beneficiaries of innovative contracts and services, facilitated through local electricity market structures
  • Written by: Iliana Ilieva (Smart Innovation Norway) and Eivind Gramme (Skagerak Nett)
  • Published at: CIRED 2019, 25th International Conference on Electricity Distribution
  • Project of relevance: E-REGIO


This paper focuses on contracts that a distribution system operator (DSO) would find attractive given it can utilise the flexibility offered through a local electricity market environment. The context for this research work is based on the E-REGIO project that investigates the roles of a local system operator (LSO) as related to the facilitation of grid and community services.

The current paper builds upon previous research by paying particular attention to the DSO’s needs and how these can be satisfied through innovative services and contract regimes.

Once a context of grid needs and the associated local market solution is set, and the theoretical description of the contracts and services is provided, the paper continues with an overview of the pilot-based approach used to verify the contract’s implementation as an instrument to meet the needs of the grid operators.

20. Bringing Business and Societal Impact Together in an Evolving Energy Sector
  • Written by: Iliana Ilieva (Smart Innovation Norway), Bernt Bremdal (Smart Innovation Norway and UiT – The Arctic University of Norway), and Sanket Puranik (Smart Innovation Norway)
  • Published at: ICEEEP 2019, 3rd International Conference on Energy Economics and Energy Policy
  • Project of relevance: INVADE


As the challenges associated with sustainability, urbanization, life quality and demography become more imminent, companies are adapting to the changing requirements by means of revised strategic approaches. Thus, enterprises are increasingly deviating from the traditionally absolute priority of maximizing total return for shareholders. While this priority is still important, businesses are also looking at the total societal impact (TSI), which represents a collection of measures and assessments that incorporate the economic, social and environmental impacts of their products and services.

This paper focuses on the compound influence that TSI may have within the energy domain. In particular, the business opportunities resulting from the Horizon 2020 funded project INVADE are being discussed but seen from the perspective of a socially responsible corporate strategy.

Referring to discussions, analyses and undertaken initiatives, this paper concludes that business models which incorporate environmentally friendly, local and social and fair energy are capable of accelerating business growth for the concerned companies.

19. Economic evaluation of the grid tariff for households with solar power installed
  • Written by: Hanne Sæle (Sintef Energi) and Bernt A. Bremdal (Smart Innovation Norway)
  • Published at: 4th International Conference & Exhibition on Electricity Distribution (CIRED)
  • Project of relevance: FlexNett


This study focuses on alternative grid tariffs for household customers with roof top photovoltaic (PV) panels(‘prosumers’), and evaluates how alternative grid tariffs might affect the benefit from investing in a roof top PV panel.

The study further shows how different orientations of the PV panels can affect the benefits for the prosumers subjectedto different grid tariffs (e.g. a power grid tariff), where the idea is that self-consumption will produce the best economicyield. First different alternatives for distribution grid tariffs to household customers and prosumers are presented.

Afterwards, the study presents empirical data showing typical consumption and generation for some households with PV panels (located in south-eastern and central Norway).

18. Operational experiences of PEMFC pilot plant using low grade hydrogen from sodium chlorate production process
  • Written by: J. Ihonen, P. Koski, V. Pulkkinen, T. Keränen 1, H. Karimäki1, S. Auvinen, K. Nikiforow, M., Kotisaari and J. Viitakangas (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland), and H. Tuiskula (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland/Smart Innovation Norway)
  • Published at: International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Volume 42, Issue 44, 2 November 2017, Pages 27269-27283


A 50 kW PEMFC pilot plant has been operated 4400 hours using hydrogen originating from a sodium chlorate production process after standard industry purification processes were applied.

The first stage of the fuel cell system operation was performed using anode gas recirculation, while in the other stages an open anode configuration was applied. The fuel cell system did not show extensive degradation despite the low quality of the hydrogen and frequent shut-downs. The average degradation rate was 2-3 microvolts per hour at low and medium currents (10-150 A).

The main causes for any unreliability were found to be hydrogen supply side system components, namely pressure reducers and valves. Recommendations are given for the improvement of both PEMFC power plant design and operation for industrial hydrogen applications.

17. EMPOWER – A network market approach for local energy trade and renewable electricity system integration
  • Written by: B. Bremdal, J. Rajasekharan, C.W. Kunze and P. Olivella-Rosell (Smart Innovation Norway)
  • Published at: Proceedings of the 7th International Workshop on Integration of Solar Power into Power Systems, Berlin, Germany, Oct. 24-25, 2017
  • Project of relevance: EMPOWER


This paper describes the local market for trade in energy, flexibility and energy related services developed in the ongoing H2020 project, EMPOWER. It is based on a network market approach.

The establishment of a local community of prosumers and consumers, inspired by Internet communities, energy cooperatives and online shopping clubs, is central to the idea. At the heart of the community the Smart Energy Service Provider (SESP) can be found.

The principal entities and operations associated with the local market concept developed are explained. Some early field results as well as regulatory challenges for a broader roll-out are described.

16. Using Ant Colony Optimization to determine influx of EVs and charging station capacities
  • Written by: Kristoffer Tangrand (Smart Technology Group, ICT Dept. University of Tromsø), and Bernt A. Bremdal (Smart Technology Group, ICT Dept. University of Tromsø Narvik/Smart Innovation Norway)
  • Published at: 2016 IEEE International Energy Conference (ENERGYCON)


This paper presents a novel method for determining plug-in Elecric Vehicle (EV) traffic and associated recharging needs based on an ACO (Ant Colony Optimization) method. The method is used to analyze traffic patterns and to determine their impact on the local grid and the design of charging stations.

The research reported here also supports the design of a portfolio of Charging Stations (CSs) across a limited geographical area and use this to determine the required capacities of each station. An empirical basis for the research presented has been gathered from Norway where the number of EVs are growing fast and where use of EVs for different purposes, including long-range driving, are becoming very pronounced. The research presented also shows how demand for charging at different times can be determined.

This lays the foundation for estimating peak loads in the local grid due to EV charging. For the individual driver the system presented can be used to find preferred routing under different circumstances such as traffic congestion.

15. Day-ahead micro-market design for distributed energy resources
  • Written By: Pol Olivella-Rosell, Guillem Viñals-Canal, Andreas Sumper and Roberto Villafafila-Robles (Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya), Bernt Bremdal (Smart Innovation Norway/UiT), Iliana Ilieva (Smart Innovation Norway), Stig Ødegaard Ottesen (Norwegian University of Science and Technology)
  • Published at: EnergyCon 2016


This paper defines a day-ahead micro-market structure and illustrates its capability of increasing distributed energy resources’ integration. This micro-market mimics in the distribution level the structure of the current European day-ahead markets and their rules to introduce competition, and is based on the social welfare indicator.

Micro-markets could overcome two major challenges of pool markets: they could consider the distribution network to ensure feasibility of the matched configurations and they could handle a high penetration of renewable energy without generation costs. A micro-market is controlled and supervised by the micro-market operator who executes the auction algorithm.

This paper exposes a state-of-the-art about micro-markets, proposes a structure and a set of rules, and shows micro-market’s behaviour in a case study. The results show that with under-sized distribution networks the micro-market can effectively improve the social welfare with respect to other simpler approaches.

14. Batterier og smarte elnett
  • Written by: Bernt Bremdal (Smart Innovation Norway/UiT – The Arctic University of Norway)
  • Presented at: Teknologien endrer samfunnet, 2017


Hele det europeiske elektrisitetssystemet er én stor maskin. Et mangfold av kraftverk opererer helt synkront på det samme nettet, med umiddelbar respons på tvers av kontinenter, slik at enda flere forbrukere skal kunne benytte sine husholdningsmaskiner, verktøy og instrumenter i det samme øyeblikket.

Det er et gigantisk sanntidssystem som opererer med høy presisjon fra mikrosekund til mikrosekund. Nøyaktig kontroll og regulering av vekselstrømmens frekvens og faser i samme øyeblikk i hele elsystemet er viktig. På samme måte må man sikre at spenningen ligger rundt 230 volt. I det øyeblikket folk står opp om morgenen, slår på kaffetrakteren og går i dusjen, må forsyningen reagere spontant.

Den elektronstrømmen som får varmeelementet i trakteren til å gløde, må genereres et sted i nettet i samme øyeblikk som bryteren slås på. Slik har systemet fungert i mer enn 100 år. Men nye utfordringer og ny teknologi krever endring.

13. EMPOWER: A network market approach for local energy trade
  • Written by: Bernt Bremdal (Smart Innovation Norway/UiT), Pol Olivella-Rosell and Jayaprakash Rajasekharan (Smart Innovation Norway)
  • Published at: Powertech conference 2017
  • Project of relevance: EMPOWER


This paper describes the local market for trade in energy, flexibility and energy related services developed in the ongoing H2020 project, EMPOWER. It is based on a network market approach.

The establishment of a local community of prosumers and consumers, inspired by Internet communities, energy cooperatives and online shopping clubs, is central to the idea.

At the heart of the community the Smart Energy Service Provider (SESP) can be found. The principal entities and operations associated with the local market concept developed are explained. Some early field results described.

12. Design and Operational Characteristics of Local Energy and Flexibility Markets in the Distribution Grid
  • Written by: Jayaprakash Rajasekharan (Smart Innovation Norway), Bernt Bremdal (Smart Innovation Norway/UiT), Stig Ødegaard Ottesen (Norwegian University of Science and Technology), Pol Olivella-Rosell, Roberto Villafafila-Robles and Andreas Sumper (Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya)
  • Published at: Proceedings from the eurelectric-florence school of regulation conference, June 7, 2017
  • Project of relevance: EMPOWER


The coming up decarbonized European electricity system with the proliferation of distributed and renewable energy production sources have created a global surge of interest in local electricity markets for neighbourhoods. Moreover, the European electricity system in 2050 will have millions of prosumers, electric vehicles and storage units willing to provide energy and flexibility that will be capitalized in distribution grids.

Our vision is an integrated wholesale market with geographical distributed multiple local markets. This topic has caught the attention of policy makers, regulatory bodies and researchers alike.

In this paper, we present some of the results on local market design and operation that has been developed in Work Package 6 of EMPOWER Horizon 2020 project. We propose a new market player role titled Smart Energy Service Provider (SESP) that manages the local market for energy, flexibility and other services. SESP provides an ICT trading platform for local players in the distribution grid such as DSO, prosumers, consumers, storage owners, distributed generators and others to participate in various local markets.

11. Local Flexibility Market Design for Aggregators Providing Multiple Flexibility Services at Distribution Network Level
  • Written by: Pol Olivella-Rosell, Pau Lloret-Gallego, Íngrid Munné-Collado, Roberto Villafafila-Robles and Andreas Sumper (Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya), Stig Ødegaard Ottessen (eSmart Systems), Jayaprakash Rajasekharan, (Smart Innovation Norway), and Bernt A. Bremdal (Smart Innovation Norway/UiT)
  • Published at: Energies 2018, 11(4), 822


This paper presents a general description of local flexibility markets as a marketbased management mechanism for aggregators. The high penetration of distributed energy resources introduces new flexibility services like prosumer or community self-balancing, congestion management and time-of-use optimization.

This work is focused on the flexibility framework to enable multiple participants to compete for selling or buying flexibility. In this framework, the aggregator acts as a local market operator and supervises flexibility transactions of the local energy community. Local market participation is voluntary. Potential flexibility stakeholders are the distribution system operator, the balance responsible party and end-users themselves. Flexibility is sold by means of loads, generators, storage units and electric vehicles.

Finally, this paper presents needed interactions between all local market stakeholders, the corresponding inputs and outputs of local market operation algorithms from participants and a case study to highlight the application of the local flexibility market in three scenarios. The local market framework could postpone grid upgrades, reduce energy costs and increase distribution grids’ hosting capacity.

10. Platform based business models in the future energy market


Global markets are experiencing a paradigm-shift due to the introduction of new business models. In addition to this, the shift towards prosumers, customer friendly regulation and services and decentralized energy markets are now making their way into the energy markets. To address these challenges the Horizon 2020 project named INVADE is developing technology platforms and platform based business models in parallel to address these challenges.

Our approach has been to study the effects of platform based business models in other industries, what platform based business models look like, how they work, and how they are currently developed in energy markets.

The next step has been to confront the technical work packages and the pilot owners in the project to align theory with practice. This has produced tangible outcomes.

9. Creating a local energy market


The local energy market concept in EMPOWER is introduced. It places emphasis on a value-oriented approach and not energy price alone. It is organised within a neighbourhood and supported by a platform-based business model.

The concept integrates trade in energy, end-user flexibility and energy-related services and products. Example contracts are presented along with initial results related to recruitment and establishment of such markets.

8. Design characteristics of a smart grid dominated local market
  • Written by: Iliana Ilieva, Bernt Bremdal and Jayaprakash Rajasekharan (Smart Innovation Norway), Stig Ødegaard Ottesen (eSmart Systems), and Pol Olivella-Rosell (Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya)
  • Published at: CIRED Workshop 2016
  • Project of relevance: EMPOWER


The purpose of this paper is to describe the roles, services and relationships that a local market would encompass, and the type of market interactions that should take place in it. The local market place constitutes an arena for a new business role – the smart energy service provider, which represents the entity with the most central functionalities with respect to local market operation.

The local market is described as consisting of three key elements of brokerage/sale: energy, flexibility and other services. Three alternative market settings are considered: islanding mode, interaction with the wholesale market and a third one where other market agents (aggregators/retailers) carry the interactions with the wholesale market.

Finally, the paper specifies the relationship between the smart energy service provider and the various local market actors and provides a clarifying user case.

7. Flexibility offered to the distribution grid from households with a photovoltaic panel on their roof: Results and experiences from several pilots in a Norwegian research project
  • Written by: Bernt A Bremdal (Smart Innovation Norway/University of Tromsø), Hanne Sæle, Merkebu Zenebe Degefa, (SINTEF Energy Researc), and Geir Mathisen (SINTEF Digital)
  • Published at: EnergyCon 2018
  • Project of relevance: FlexNett


The objective of this study is to evaluate how PV-oriented prosumers can offer flexibility to the Distribution System Operator (DSO). The different cases focus on the customer and changes on the customer side that will benefit both the customer and the distribution grid. (Actual tests of services delivered to the DSO have not been performed.)

The study also highlights the importance of being proactive about the placement of roof top panels near the loads in the grid for a better balance between PV-output and loads at the terminal points in the grid. This approach demonstrated the secure operations of the grid well below the capacity limits and yield better rewards for the prosumer.

In this study, storage options at the prosumer side are also considered and both technical and economic aspects are analysed. Special emphasis is placed on the impact of power tariff structures that include capacity considerations.

6. Local Economic Dispatch with Local Renewable Generation and Flexible Load Management


This paper presents a new local economic dispatch composed of local renewable energy sources, residential loads, flexible residential loads, and the retail market. The outlined model is based on a two-stage stochastic mixed-integer programming model, whose objective function minimizes the operational costs.

The mathematical formulation is composed of three blocks of constraints such as cost, balance and flexible constraints. As a stochastic programming problem, the main decisions are the energy bought in the retail market, flexible energy of the residential load to be increased and decreased in each scheduling period and the excess of generation from the prosumers injected into the network, to be sold in the retail market.

A case study over the 24 hours with residential loads, flexible residential loads, and prosumers shows the effects on the costs, but also the effects of marginal costs on the main decisions. The proposed case study helps to draw the main conclusions of our problem.

5. Energy Storage as a Trigger for Business Model Innovation in the Energy Sector
  • Written by: Iliana Ilieva and Jayaprakash Rajasekharan (Smart Innovation Norway)
  • Published at: EnergyCon 2018
  • Project of relevance: INVADE


This paper studies various techno-economic factors that influence the energy storage market and identifies key thematic elements which will contribute to the development of business models in the energy storage sector. With multiple technological innovations penetrating the electricity generation, transmission and distribution systems, traditional business models in the energy sector stand on the verge of a fundamental transformation.

Energy storage will serve as the catalyst for such disruptive business model innovations by offering distributed, on-demand, real-time flexibility and services. Platform business models have already revolutionized other sectors and present a huge potential for energy storage based management services that can dynamically match supply and demand of energy, and cater for flexibility and associated end-user benefits in the grid.

The Horizon 2020 project INVADE will realize a cloud-based platform for energy storage services at different levels in the distribution grid along with a rich framework of innovative business models.

4. Advanced Power Electronics can make Distributed Energy Storage Attractive
  • Written by: Iliana Ilieva, Sanket Puranik (Smart Innovation Norway), and Andreas Sumper (Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya)
  • Project of relevance: RESOLVD


With an increasing number of distributed renewable energy sources installed at various ends of the low-voltage grid challenges arise with respect to ensuring security and quality of supply. Combining local renewable generation with local energy storage capacities can mitigate those challenges. Yet, an increasing market with dropping costs of energy storage solution of various types can be demanding, as batteries with different schedules of charging and discharging must be managed simultaneously. However, technological innovation can well respond to that issue.

Within the RESOLVD project (2017-2020, funded by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme under grant agreement No 773715) an innovative advanced power electronics device with integrated storage management capabilities is to be developed. The device will be capable of optimizing on the co-joint charging and discharging schedules of different storage technologies. In this way the device will allow for significantly improved grid-to-storage interactions and will contribute for better control and flexibility utilization in the low-voltage grid, based on flattening the demand curve at the substation level, loss reduction, improved voltage control and supply quality.

More specifically, the new power electronics devices to be produced in RESOLVD embraces a variety of new technology – a power conversion system, a battery management system and an intelligent local energy manager to cater for communications and the implementation of overall device control logic. These new technologies will be supported by a decision support toolkit, a distributed software platform and a wide area monitoring system to comprise an overall solution that successfully supports the low-voltage grid.

The advanced power electronics device is to facilitate interactions with legacy systems which makes it suitable for integration at various low-voltage grid levels and for the benefit of various stakeholders. Thus, a diverse set of new business models can be envisioned to provide for an optimal utilization of energy storage capacities located at the relevant stakeholders’ premises. The objective of this paper is to describe various stakeholders that can effectively implement the RESOLVD advanced power electronics solution and propose use cases validating the business models to be applied. In addition, the paper is to reflect on the benefits associated with the introduction of the specific technology solution for both the low-voltage level grid and the stakeholders to apply the device. The specific methods taken in use are: stakeholder analysis (with mapping of relevant stakeholders), analysis of potential market size and pricing policy, definition of new business models and specific use cases.

Our analysis suggests that the power electronics device with storage management capabilities can, besides its primer use by distribution system operators, be attractive for various low-voltage grid users. Among the most eminent ones are considered energy communities owning storage of various types, neighborhood/block managers, industrial facilities, commercial buildings of larger-scale. The specific use-cases indicate a profitable business environment for the RESOLVD solution. However, possibilities for high degree of customization are needed and the overall applicability of the solution will depend on the market developments within the energy storage field.

3. Improved Methods for Stakeholder Analysis to Unveil Vital Roles and Responsibilities in the Future Flexibility Markets


This paper presents a novel stakeholder analysis method based upon mapping. The method is applied within an ongoing research and innovation project under the umbrella of the H2020 program. Using the maps relevant stakeholders are evaluated to determine opportunities and barriers in the energy market that can accelerate or stall business initiatives with the aim to capitalize on end user flexibility.

The results show that mapping is an effective tool in revealing attitude of different stakeholders towards flexibility markets and platform-based business. The analysis is further used to shape exploitation activities of the project.

2. The Innovative Role of Local System Operator as a Facilitator of Grid and Community Services in the Local Electricity Market


Local electricity markets offer attractive solutions to long pending grid challenges associated with grid balancing, power quality and supply security, particularly with increased introduction of distributed renewable energy resources. This paper addresses questions regarding the roles, responsibilities and rights associated with local market participation, as well as issues that relate to the activities which can be carried out in the market.

We describe the local system operator (LSO) as the most central role that is in charge of the operation of the local electricity market and we add to the state-of-the-art by paying particular attention to the possibilities that digitization offers within the local market context.

More specifically, the capabilities of utilizing big data, machine learning and artificial intelligence to provide new or amplified business opportunities for the local market participants are central for the market design configuration that this paper focuses upon. Furthermore, we expect high stakeholder interest in the digitization-enabled innovative services around smart mobility and complementary offers of high diversity.

1. Digital Ecosystems as a Disruptive Force of Flexibility Services in the Energy Sector
  • Written by: Iliana Ilieva, Bernt Bremdal (Smart Innovation Norway), and Dagfinn Wåge (Lyse AS)
  • Project of relevance: INVADE


With the advances of new technologies related to digitization and artificial intelligence (AI) and with the increasing interest in sharing economy, industries and economies of various sectors are being reshaped. The impact of these technological changes (also being commented upon as the Fourth Industrial Revolution [1]), combined with evolving attitudes and interests of modern end-users is by no doubts leaving its trace in the power sector as well.

In particular, we could see a vast potential of improved business models in the energy field that capture the new trends associated with the accelerating development of energy-related technologies (such as for distributed energy resources (DER)), digitization and changing customer preferences with strong focus on hi-tech feeling, environment and variety of choice.

The anticipated business model transformation points strongly towards the ecosystem development that revolutionizes industry after industry [2]. In this context, we foresee for the energy sector innovative business models where digital ecosystems serve as a disruptive force for enablement of flexibility services.